Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Nursing (MAN)



First Advisor

Joyce P. Miller, DNP, RN

Second Advisor

Pauline Abraham, DNP, RN

Third Advisor

Kathleen Clark, DNP, RN


Racism within health care creates hostile work environments for health care staff and inhibits healing for patients needing care. The communities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota, have faced increasing racial tensions in the past three years, with th e COVID- 19 pandemic negatively impacting increased proportions of the Black, Indigenous, and people of color communities as well as the racially motivated murder of George Floyd. Because nurses in this area understand the need to address racism and combat negative health outcomes affecting their patient populations, there was a strong push for increased diversity, equity, and inclusion education in a nurses’ union contract of 2023-2025. It was recognized that for a shift in culture away from racism and towards humility, nurses needed in-person implicit bias education. This project discusses an educational opportunity guided by Madeline Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, which focuses on implicit bias, historical trauma, and structural racism. Leininger's theory emphasizes the need for nurses to practice culturally congruent care. The educational courses illuminate Leininger’s research giving nurses tools for self- examination and encouraging reflection on one’s perception of culture and bias, as well as tools to recognize implicit bias and mitigate racism. The effectiveness of the education will be measured by a pre and post survey with questions utilizing the Likert scale. The desired outcome of the education will be the increase in each nurse’s cultural humility and the growth of transcultural nursing.


SC 11.MAN.2023.Daramola.K