Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Ryane Lester, MPAS, PA-C


Background: Depression has a high prevalence, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide.1 Antidepressants and talk therapy are the current mainstays for treatment. Given the high prevalence of depression, there is value in the research regarding further treatment options.

Purpose: A literature review of studies exploring additional treatment modalities to lower depression symptoms in adults.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using with the search terms <(adults) AND (depression, low mood, mental health) AND (pharmacologic, SSRI, SNRI) OR ( physical activity, fitness, exercise), OR (time outdoors, UV exposure, phototherapy) OR (non-talk therapy)>. Inclusion criteria were studies that were published from 2015 to the present. Exclusion criteria were studies not in English.

Conclusions: Aside from the currently recommended approaches to treating depression, pharmacologic and talk-therapy, other treatment modalities were explored in this literature review. Such treatment modalities include exercise, time outdoors, and alternative therapies. These treatment modalities yielded similar results to the current recommendations in decreasing symptoms of depression.


SC 11.PAS.2022.Raiolo.A

Included in

Psychiatry Commons