Date of Award

Fall 1999

Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Leadership (MAL)



First Advisor

Dr. Rosemary Link


The focus of this paper will be the application of symbolic convergence theory to the leadership attributes of Malcolm X.

Symbolic Convergence Theory focuses on determining and identifying symbols in diverse communities and showing how the meanings for these symbols intersect to create shared results.

In the case of Malcolm X, several ideas which initially sounded radical and frightening to many white people became more solid and reasonable when presented by themes consonant with mainstream American culture.

By focusing on specific examples used by Malcolm X to present his ideas to diverse cultures, I hope to emphasize the importance of symbols and the vital role they play in creating an understanding across diverse communities.


SC 11.MAL.1999.Pittelko.JL