Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Vanessa Bester


Background: Sudden, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest continues to be one of the leading causes of death among adults worldwide. Although great strides have been made in the management of cardiac arrest, in American, more than 300,000 individuals suffer from cardiac arrest outside of the hospital each year, with survival to hospital discharge ranging from 5.4% in children to 10.4% in adults.

Methods: The information obtained, synthesized, and presented in the following research project includes a conglomeration of data obtained from forty-two peer-reviewed articles that were published over the last several decades. The questions that guided the research are as followed: Is there an ideal temperature that should be used during targeted temperature management (TTM) to improve a patients overall outcome? What is the ideal timing for the initiation of TTM? Is there a correlation between the duration of TTM and outcome? What is the best method for inducing hypothermia while limiting adverse side effects? Finally, what is the ideal paralytic/sedation regimen to reduce adverse outcomes?

Conclusion: In unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology, targeted temperature management (TTM) is the primary treatment modality used both nationally and internationally. While there is significant support for the use of TTM following cardiac arrest, it is worth recognizing that there is still significant variance among the medical industry pertaining to the optimal temperature, duration of intervention, onset of intervention, and method for inducing hypothermia following cardiac arrest.