Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Eric Van Hecke, MPAS, PA-C, CAQ-EM, DMSC candidate


Background: In 2020, Minnesota recorded 4,920 admissions with associated opioid use for adults 18 years of age and older.1 2021 put Minnesota's Opioid-related overdose mortality number at 1,017 individuals.2 Methadone and Buprenorphine as MOUD is the first line treatment for Opioid Use Disorder and long-time management as the standard of care.3 Naloxone is the drug of choice for opioid reversal and overdose prevention.3

Purpose: This study aims to investigate the barriers that OUD feel when attempting to receive treatment for OUD and access Naloxone. The indication is the number of OUD- related admissions and OUD-related overdose fatalities. In addition, the goal is to discover limitations to care and find solutions that can be met in Minnesota communities.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted with UpToDate, Jstor, Augsburg University's Lindell Library, Google Scholar, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Center for Disease Control (CDC), Science Direct, Health Affairs, Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ( SAMHSA), Food and Drug Association (FDA), and more. The Inclusion data ranged from the year 1992 to 2022 published in 2017 or thereafter.

Conclusions: Minnesota the expansion of the ECHO project can lead to an increased OUD treatment with the use of online technology, the increased clinical offices offering initiation of Buprenorphine a MOUD, and treatment of comorbid conditions. Buprenorphine training programs and intensive facility guidance can optimize treatment for OUD patients.


SC 11.PAS.2023.Doane.A

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