Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Access Thesis

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)



First Advisor

Lisa Van Getson, APRN, DNP, FNP-C

Second Advisor

Susanne M. Cutshall, APRN, DNP, CNS

Third Advisor

Michelle Ullery, DNP, APRN, CNP


Historically health care providers have used opioid pain medications as a first line treatment

however, as we are uncovering more science about our physiology and mental well-being, we are learning that pain modulation requires treatments that include a holistic perspective. A tool kit of holistic modalities and cultural care guidelines using M. Leininger’s Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory can offer a more comprehensive and therapeutic approach to addressing pain in the primary care setting. Pain is a universal human condition; no one gets through life without it. Pain can be persistent, intermittent, include aches, twinges, or soreness, pinches, and prickles. Whatever the sensation, pain interrupts patients’ lives and can rob them of the joy of living with its crippling effects. Pain causes the nervous system to be on high alert and can cause feelings of desperation in a plea to make it stop. As pain management evolves away from opioids a holistic toolkit and cultural care references will guide providers in a new approach to care for patients.


SC 11.DNP.2023.Johnson.BK