Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Leadership (MAL)



First Advisor

Diane L Pike

Second Advisor

Milda K Hedblom


Middle managers possess technical knowledge and awareness important to public policy formulation and environmental interaction, which is a predominant source of change for the organization. As an organization, Hill County Correction Departrnent's bureaucratic structure is ill-suited to respond to its complex and unstable environmen. Yet this structure is explained because HCCD is a public organization directly accountable to external bodies; its services are ambiguously defined and interpreted; and its environment hostile. This structure encourages a reactive rather than proactive position for the organization with the environment. Hierarchical structure, role obligation, and uncertainty promote risk-aversive activities by middle managers through remaining within clear role boundaries. Yet leadership appears to involve the deliberate effort to create room beyond normal role obligations in which personal discretion and influence can be employed. Opportunities for the middle to engage in leadership activities with the environment seem to exist as supervisors create room to maneuver in informal sitruations or through membership in professional associations.


SC 11.MAL.1992.Menke.JM