Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Kristen Lindvall, PA-C


Background: Graves’ Disease is an autoimmune disease that is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States. Treatment options include antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine ablation, and thyroidectomy. Each route of treatment has its own side effect and risk profile that needs to be taken into account. Studies are still conflicting on success rates of these treatments.

Purpose: To give further knowledge of outcomes and risks to providers to help guide treatment of Graves’ Disease

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using google scholar using the search terms Graves’ Disease, antithyroid drugs, methimazole, thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation, radioactive iodine, complications, adverse reactions. Inclusion criteria were studies that were conducted in 2016 of later, and had a focus on treatment protocols and outcomes of treatment of graves’ disease. Exclusion criteria were studies that didn’t have clinical relevance. Focus was to find individual studies and not meta analyses.

Conclusions: Antithyroid drugs are an effective tool of treatment for lesser disease and in preparatory phase of a more definitive treatment. Relapse rates are concerning for antithyroid drugs and radioiodine ablation especially in populations with any extra thyroid symptoms such as Graves’ orbitopathy. Surgery provides a better relapse and risk profile than radioactive iodine that has possible cancer mortality risks as long as patients are a good candidates for a surgical operation.


SC 11.PAS.2022.Shaffer.D