Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Eric Van Hecke, MPAS, PA-C, CAQ-EM


Background: Antibiotics were first developed to treat wounded soldiers and cases of pneumonia in World War II. By the 1940s, antibiotics became widely used to treat several infectious processes. It was not long after antibiotics were being used frequently by clinicians that resistant strains began to emerge. Today, antibiotic resistance is a growing global health concern seen in many parts of the world. There are many factors that contribute to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance.

Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how socioeconomic factors play a role in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The literature review focused on economics, education, culture, and environment as potential causes for the acceleration of antibiotic resistance seen globally.

Methods: Databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were used to find articles that help provide evidence on this topic. Cross-sectional Studies, surveys, and longitudinal studies were included in the paper.

Conclusion: After analyzing the studies, results showed that poor economics, lack of access to health, poor health literacy, and poor infrastructure all contribute to the rise of resistant pathogens. In conclusion, to improve antibiotic resistance, public health initiatives need to take place to improve education and awareness surrounding socioeconomic determinants of resistance.


SC 11.PAS.2022.Jama.K