Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Vanessa S. Bester, EdD, PA-C


Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally. Therefore, there is the need for more resources to be poured into the research of more treatment options, diagnostic methods and preventative steps for patients. Though several technological advancements are being made in the world of medicine, it is not a bad idea to look at other avenues that have great potential to improve patient outcomes in cardiovascular diseases. 3D and bioprinting, though a relatively new technology in the world of medicine, is showing a promising future. It is already being applied in the field of orthopedic surgery and other specialties are jumping on this band- wagon as well.

Purpose: The question at hand that this literature review seeks to answer is that, can 3D and bioprinting serve as an efficient and safe alternative to traditional methods and materials in cardiovascular diseases?

Methods: In an attempt to answer this question, a comprehensive literature review was conducted via Google Scholar, Google and Trip Database by using the search terms, 3D printing, bioprinting, tissue engineering, cardiovascular diseases, and orthopedic implants, to name a few. Inclusion criteria were primary research, clinical trials, and exclusion criteria were studies before 2017 and systematic reviews.

Conclusions: Looking at some of the marvelous already performed and ongoing studies, there is a strong potential for 3D and bioprinting to become a potential alternative to traditional methods and materials in cardiovascular diseases in the near future. This new technological advancement just needs time, dedication and hard work to bear relevant fruit in realm of cardiovascular diseases.


AC 11.PAS.2022.AsareOse.A

Included in

Cardiology Commons