Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Ryane Lester


Objective: Tendinopathies of the upper and lower extremity are one of the most common injuries in athletes and non-athletes in the United States. This literature review aimed to determine the most effective preventions and treatments for patients with tendinopathies.

Methods: A literature search was conducted primarily through Google Scholar and PubMed, for articles related to effective preventions and treatments for tendinopathies.

Discussion: Based on the literature review, there were multiple effective treatments and preventative measures for tendinopathies in the upper and lower extremity. The most effective preventative measures consisted of risk factors, dynamic warmups, and prevention programs. Treatments were broken down into three categories: elbow, patella, and plantar tendinopathies. The diamond tape job and counterforce brace improved symptoms in patients with elbow tendinopathies, and improved function throughout the body. Corticosteroids improved symptoms short term in the UE and LE, while PRP improved symptoms and promoted long term tissue healing. Physical therapy (eccentric exercises) appeared to show abundant benefit on tendinopathies regardless of the location.

Conclusion: For tendinopathies that fail conservative treatments, preventative measures can help avert tendinopathies. Corticosteroids, PRP, and physical therapy can be used for treatment. Specific prevention programs can inhibit elbow tendinopathies and improve function throughout the whole body, while a reduction in risk factors could prevent elbow, patella, and plantar tendinopathies. Regarding the elbow and plantar fascia, the best long-term results were PRP or physical therapy (eccentric exercises). For the knee, eccentric exercises were the most effective treatment, while PRP had mixed results. Despite an increase in research on these topics, more RCT’s are needed in upper/lower tendinopathies, and standard protocols for PRP.


SC 11.PAS.2021.Lawson.C

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Orthopedics Commons