Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Meredith Wold, PA-C


Solitary confinement or isolation is widespread globally and has been used as a form of punishment, reform, reflection, and cleansing throughout time. The devastating impacts of not having social interactions for extended periods of time have been documented and noted.1 These impacts include severe mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suicide, motor disturbances, biological changes, and increased mortality.1-3 The analysis of how the United States became the country with the largest prison system and mentally ill population is addressed in this thesis including understanding how the prison-industrial complex was built. Understanding how the prison- industrial complex was built aids in the dismantling of the system. A case study of Kalief Browder along with several others is also discussed throughout this paper, in support of the real-life manifestations of solitary confinement. Research from several disciplines will be presented to support the vast amount of research supporting the outlaw of solitary confinement of all types. The findings discussed in this research paper are compiled and extracted from peer-reviewed articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published between 1999-2019. This research paper examines the strengths and limitations of the reviewed articles.


SC 11.PAS.2020.Muonio.T

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Psychiatry Commons