Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Jenny Kluznik


Since 1987, no new structural class of antibiotic has been introduced into human medicine. Aside from the absence of a new structural class of antibiotics, there has been a startlingly low number of new antibiotics approved since 1987. With the lack of new antibiotics, finding current antibiotics that are effective is becoming an alarming challenge due to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria presents a major threat to public health because they reduce the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure. Without treatment for common infections, like uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), resistant infections will adversely affect mortality, disease transmission, and duration of illnesses. In Nicaragua, approximately 30% of the population lives on less than $2 per day. In rural areas, poverty rates are especially high, where 50% of households live in extreme poverty. Poverty is a key reason why developing countries are at a higher risk for increased antibiotic resistance.