Chhorn Pho

Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

MS in Physician Assistant Studies (PA)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Meredith Wold


Body weight, glucose, insulin, and leptin were studied in children of mothers with gestational diabetes, type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Breast milk of diabetic mothers was also analyzed to study its relationship to childhood obesity. In the first 2 years of life, infants of mothers with gestational diabetes have no significant difference in weight gain but by the age of 10, most of the children birthed by any diabetic mothers were either overweight or obese. Children of mothers diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 have higher resistance to insulin than children of mothers with other diabetes types. Leptin was observed to be negatively correlated with insulin level in utero. Hyperinsulinemia was correlated with low leptin level in the fetal side of the placenta. Lastly, milk of mothers with diabetes was found to have higher glucose, insulin, and energy content than control group. By the age of 2, a significant number of breastfed children whose mothers had diabetes were either overweight or obese.